EPIC v. IRS (Donald Trump's Tax Records)
- EPIC Obtains DHS Pre-Election Assessment on Threats to US Election Infrastructure: As part of EPIC's Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Department of Homeland Security, the DHS Office of Intelligence and Analysis released to EPIC documents related to the Russian interference of the 2016 presidential election. One notable document is "Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities to US Election Infrastructure." The report, issued before the presidential election, stated that the "DHS ha[d] no indication that adversaries or criminals are planning cyber operations against US election infrastructure that would change the outcome of the coming US election." The DHS report also stated that a successful widespread cyber operation against US voting machines would require "a multiyear effort with significant...resources available only to a nation state" but this level of level of effort "would make it nearly impossible to avoid detection." According to election experts, this assertion ignores the possibility that an adversary can change an election outcome without a widespread attacks. Launching targeted attacks on swing districts could compromise an election, especially when few states engage in post-election audits and the impossibility of a recount in states with paperless voting machines. EPIC is pursuing several other related FOIA cases about Russian interference with the 2016 election: EPIC v. FBI (response to Russian cyberattacks), EPIC v. ODNI (Russian hacking), EPIC v. IRS I (release of Trump's tax returns), and EPIC v. IRS II (release of Trump's offers-in-compromise). (Dec. 10, 2018)
- Trump-Russia Records at Issue in Mueller Probe, EPIC v. IRS: New revelations in the Mueller probe implicate EPIC’s Freedom of Information Act cases for President Trump’s tax returns. In EPIC v. IRS, currently before the D.C. Circuit, EPIC argued that the IRS has the authority to disclose the returns to correct misstatements of fact concerning financial ties to Russia. Trump had tweeted that “Russia has never tried to use leverage over me. I HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH RUSSIA - NO DEALS, NO LOANS, NO NOTHING.” This claim is now disproven by the Special Counsel’s investigation, which recently determined that Mr. Trump pursued a major real estate deal with the Russian government in 2016. In a second case, EPIC v. IRS II, EPIC is seeking the release of tax records related to President Trump's businesses. EPIC has also filed a FOIA request for records concerning the Special Counsel investigation. (Nov. 30, 2018) More top news »
If the Freedom of Information Act means anything, it means that the American public has the right to know whether records exist in a federal agency which reveal that the U.S. president has financial dealings with a foreign adversary.
With that in mind, EPIC submitted a FOIA request to the Internal Revenue Service on February 16, 2017 seeking “Donald J. Trump’s tax returns for tax years 2010 forward and any other indications of financial relations with the Russian government or Russian businesses.”
Donald J. Trump’s failure to release his tax returns is unprecedented and goes against the long-standing tradition of candidates for the U.S. presidency. The release of President Trump’s tax returns would help determine whether statements regarding his business relations with Russia and the Russian government are correct or not correct.
Notably, the public favors the release of the President’s tax records. According to an ABC News poll, three-quarters of Americans say he should release his returns. More than 1 million people have signed a petition urging the federal government to “[i]mmediately release Donald J. Trump's full tax returns, with all information needed to verify emoluments clause compliance.”
After the IRS refused to process EPIC's FOIA request, EPIC filed suit against the agency on April 15, 2017 in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. On August 18, 2017, the Court granted the IRS's motion to dismiss EPIC's case, concluding that "until President Trump or Congress authorizes release of the tax returns, EPIC (and the rest of the American public) will remain in the dark." EPIC has appealed the District Court's decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, which heard arguments in the case on Thursday, September 13, 2018.
In the aftermath of President Richard M. Nixon’s resignation, Congress enacted the Tax Reform Act of 1976 to strengthen the accountability of the IRS. Senator Lowell Weicker (R-CT) described the law as a “legislative remedy to the flaws of Government exposed by the chain of abuses we call Watergate.”
To ensure the “integrity and fairness [of the IRS] in administering the tax laws,” one provision of the Act—§ 6103(k)(3)—permits the IRS Commissioner to “disclose such return information or any other information with respect to any specific taxpayer to the extent necessary for tax administration purposes to correct a misstatement of fact published or disclosed with respect to such taxpayer's return or any transaction of the taxpayer with the Internal Revenue Service.” The provision requires the Commissioner to obtain the approval of the Joint Committee on Taxation.
Section 6103(k)(3) provides the IRS with an “extremely important” authority “to protect itself and the tax system[.]” As Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-IA) has explained, certain “type[s] of factual misstatements should trigger disclosure of return information” under § 6103(k)(3) if they are of a sufficient “degree of seriousness.”
The IRS has approached the Joint Committee on Taxation about its § 6103(k)(3) authority in at least two other matters. In 1997, the IRS Commissioner “requested the opportunity to explore with Chairman Archer and Chairman Roth the possibility of using Code section 6103(k)(3) to permit the IRS to correct misstatements of fact regarding examinations of tax-exempt organizations.” Commissioner Richardson explained that “unfounded reports erode public confidence in the integrity of the IRS, thereby undermining the self-assessment compliance system.” The IRS put forward a similar proposal in 1981 to correct misstatements by tax protestors that the IRS was “letting them get away with not filing or that [the IRS was] harassing them.”
’Misstatement[s] of Fact’
Many individuals, including the President, have published conflicting statements of fact about the contents of President Trump’s tax returns. At least some of these statements of fact must necessarily be false because they are contradictory.
In July 2016, for example, Trump stated on Twitter: “For the record, I have ZERO investments in Russia.” Days later, Trump stated in an interview that he had “no relationship to Russia whatsoever” and “no debts” in the country.
However, numerous news organizations have covered President Trump’s ties to Russian business and government. The Washington Post reported that “[s]ince the 1980s, Trump and his family members have made numerous trips to Moscow in search of business opportunities, and they have relied on Russian investors to buy their properties around the world.” CBS News noted that “[w]hile the Republican presidential nominee has denied any ties to Russia, his connections to the country and its president go back years.”
Following his election, President Trump tweeted on January 11, 2017: "Russia has never tried to use leverage over me. I HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH RUSSIA - NO DEALS, NO LOANS, NO NOTHING!” On February 16, the President reiterated his statement in a nationally televised press conference: “I can tell you, speaking for myself, I own nothing in Russia. I have no loans in Russia. I don't have any deals in Russia.”
Yet three separate investigations—one by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, one by the House Intelligence Committee, and one by the Senate Intelligence Committee—are poised to examine President Trump’s business connections to Russia. Sen. Chris Murphy (D-CT) recently asserted that President Trump’s tax returns “could shed light on Trump’s ‘bizarre positioning’ towards Russia” and alleged “either that the Russians have something on Trump, or that there are financial ties that are requiring Trump to behave this way or perhaps the Russians helped him in the election and this is sort of a quid pro quo.”
Meanwhile, news reports continue to contradict the President’s factual claims about his financial dealings. “I believe Trump’s tax returns are key evidence in the investigations into the extent of Russian interference in the election and should be made public or at least provided to Congress,” one commentator wrote. President Trump’s statements that he “has ZERO investments in Russia” and that he has “NOTHING TO DO WITH RUSSIA” have even been contradicted by his family. In 2008, Donald Trump, Jr. stated that “Russians make up a pretty disproportionate cross-section of a lot of our assets. . . . We see a lot of money pouring in from Russia.”
’Tax Administration Purposes’
President Trump, media commentators, and many members of the public have attacked the integrity and fairness of IRS in recent months, alleging religious discrimination, political bias, and economic favoritism in the agency’s administration of the tax code.
President Trump has claimed that he “unfairly get[s] audited by the I.R.S. almost every single year” and has accused the agency of targeting him for both religious and political reasons. In a February 2016 CNN interview, Trump stated: "I'm always audited by the IRS, which I think is very unfair—I don't know, maybe because of religion, maybe because of something else.” Trump added that the IRS may target him “because of the fact that I'm a strong Christian, and I feel strongly about it and maybe there's a bias.”
Others have questioned whether the IRS is unfairly deferential toward President Trump and other wealthy taxpayers. In a Forbes article titled “Do Wealthy People Like Trump Have Easier IRS Audits?,” tax attorney Robert W. Wood reported that Trump and other big earners appear to elude IRS auditors at higher rates than regular earners. “[S]tatistics might be read to suggest that wealthy individuals often outdo even this elite wing of the IRS [the IRS Wealth Squad],” Wood wrote. “[I]n a significant percentage of the audits it handles, the IRS Wealth Squad walks away without a single dollar.”
Still others have announced their intention to “withhold payment until Trump releases his own tax returns, since they believe the documents would prove that he's not fit to be president.”
In order to maintain public confidence in the agency’s equitable administration of the tax code, the IRS must exercise its power under § 6103(k)(3) to release Donald Trump’s returns.
EPIC’s FOIA Request
On February 16, 2017, EPIC submitted a FOIA request to the Internal Revenue Service seeking “all of Donald J. Trump’s individual income tax returns for tax years 2010 forward, and any other indications of financial relations with the Russian government or Russian businesses.” In a letter dated March 2, 2017, the IRS acknowledged receipt of EPIC’s request but stated that it was “closing [EPIC’s] request as incomplete with no further action.”
On March 29, 2017, EPIC submitted an appeal and renewed FOIA request to the IRS. EPIC explained its right to seek and access such records under 26 U.S.C. § 6103(k)(3) and urged the IRS Commissioner to “move promptly to obtain permission from the Joint Commission on Taxation to release the records EPIC has requested.”
In a letter dated April 6, 2017, the IRS acknowledged receipt of EPIC’s appeal but again stated that it was closing EPIC’s request as “incomplete.” The agency asserted that “any future request regarding this subject matter [would] not be processed.”
On April 15, 2017, EPIC filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia seeking to compel disclosure of the requested tax records. On August 18, 2017, the Court granted the IRS's motion to dismiss EPIC's case, concluding that "until President Trump or Congress authorizes release of the tax returns, EPIC (and the rest of the American public) will remain in the dark."
As Marc Rotenberg, President of EPIC, has said: "There has never been a more compelling request presented to the IRS than the request from EPIC to obtain the tax records of President Donald J. Trump."
There is a widespread concern that the President’s private financial interests may conflict with the national interests of the United States. There is a related concern that Mr. Trump may have entered into business relations with the Russian government that aided his presidential campaign. There is simply no way to resolve these disputes without the release of the tax records. The public has the right to know.
“The public interest in disclosure of this information could not be greater,” EPIC noted in the Complaint against the IRS. “This complaint presents unique facts that would not apply to the release of any other tax returns for any other taxpayer.”
In addition to this case, EPIC has filed two other Freedom of Information Act lawsuits regarding Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential Election: EPIC v. FBI (concerning a request for records related to the hack of the DCCC, DNC, and RNC systems) and EPIC v. ODNI (concerning a request for the full report on "Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections").
U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia (No. 17-670)
- Complaint (Apr. 15, 2017)
- IRS Motion for Extension of Time (May 17, 2017)
- EPIC Opposition to Motion for Extension of Time (May 18, 2017)
- Order Re Motion for Extension of Time (May 19, 2017)
- IRS Motion to Dismiss and Memorandum (June 12, 2017)
- Declaration of Michael C. Young
- IRS Exhibit A
- IRS Exhibit B
- IRS Exhibit C
- IRS Exhibit D
- IRS Proposed Order
- EPIC Opposition to Motion to Dismiss (June 26, 2017)
- IRS Reply on Motion to Dismiss (July 3, 2017)
- Opinion (August 18, 2017)
U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (No. 17-5225)
- EPIC Opening Brief (February 21, 2018)
- Joint Appendix (February 21, 2018)
- IRS Brief (Apr. 20, 2018)
- EPIC Reply Brief (May 4, 2018)
- Notice of Oral Argument (June 15, 2018)
- Oral Argument Recording (September 13, 2018)
- EPIC FOIA Request (Feb. 16, 2017)
- IRS Response (Mar. 6, 2017)
- EPIC FOIA Appeal (Mar. 29, 2017)
- IRS Response (Apr. 10, 2017)
- EPIC Supplemental FOIA Request (Apr. 27, 2017)
- IRS Response to EPIC Supplemental FOIA Request (Sep. 14, 2017)
- IRS Disclosure Report for Calendar Year 2000 (May 22, 2001)
- Lawyers Spar Over Trump Tax Return FOIA Suit at DC Circuit, National Law Journal (September 13, 2018)
- Donald Trump’s Tax Returns Get Their Day in the DC Circuit, National Law Journal (September 12, 2018)
- Appeals Court to Hear Case over Releasing Trump’s Tax Returns This Week, Law & Crime (September 12, 2018)
- Why won’t Republicans finally demand Trump release his tax returns?, Washington Post (July 19, 2018)
- EPIC Says It Doesn’t Need Trump's OK For Returns, Law360 (June 28, 2017)
- EPIC Sues IRS For Release of Trump's Tax Returns, KPFA Evening News (Apr. 17, 2017)
- Rebecca Morin, EPIC sues IRS over Trump's tax returns, POLITICO (Apr. 15, 2017)
- Mallory Shelbourne, EPIC sues IRS for not disclosing Trump's taxes, The Hill (Apr. 15, 2017)
- Greg Allen, Protesters Use April 15 To Demand Trump's Tax Returns, NPR (Apr. 15, 2017)
- Perry Stein, The Tax March: Protesters around the country call on Trump to release his taxes, Washington Post (Apr. 15, 2017)
- Gregory Korte, Trump’s tax returns will be immediately under audit, USA Today, April 12, 2017
- Peter Overby, Activists Plan ‘Tax Day’ Marches Calling For Release of Trump’s Taxes, NPR, April 6, 2017
- Kira Lerner, More Than Half Of States Are Trying to Force Trump To Release His Tax Returns, Think Progress, April 6, 2017
- Simone Thomas and Kristin Wilson, Pelosi, Dems Not Letting Go Of Trump Tax Return Push, CNN, April 5, 2017
- Christina Marcos and Naomi Jagoda, Republicans Take Heat On Trump Tax Returns, The Hill, March 19, 2017
- Mark Hensch, Feinstein: ‘Possibility’ Intel Dems Could Subponea Trump Tax Returns, The Hill, March 9, 2017
- Allison Michaels, Will President Trump Ever Release His Tax Returns, Washington Post, February 17, 2017
- Daniel Marans, Petition Demanding Donald Trump Release His Tax Returns Breaks White House Record, Huffington Post, January 27, 2017
- Eric Bradner, Conway: Trump Will No Release Tax Returns, CNN, January 22, 2017
- Chris Sommerfeldt, Contrary to Donald Trump’s Belief, 74% of Americans Want To See His Tax Returns, According To Poll, New York Daily News, January 17, 2017
- Mark Berman, Trump Says He Still Won’t Release His Tax Returns And Claims Americans Don’t ‘Care At All,’ Washington Post, January 11, 2017
- Sarah Bergley, Donald Trump Says He Doesn’t Think Americans Care About His Tax Returns, Time, January 11, 2017
- Igor Bobic, Donald Trump Breaks 40-Year Bipartisan Tradition Not Releasing Tax Returns, Huffington Post, November 8, 2016
- Drew Harwell, All The Excuses Trump Has Given For Why He Won’t Release His Tax Returns, Washington Post, September 15, 2016